Volcanoes are caused by pressure and temperature inside the earth. Volcanoes are mountains that contain molten rock. Molten rock is called magma.
The magma chamber is at the bottom of the volcano. When magma is out of the volcano, it is called lava. When lava gets cold it turns into rock.
Mount Versuvious, in Italy, is a famous volcano. It erupted in AD 79 and completely covered the city of Pompeii.
The earth has several volcanoes. One of the Hawaii Islands is actually a large shield volcano.
There are 3 types of volcano
Composite – They have steep sides formed from layers of ash and lava.
Cinder Cone -
Earthquakes happen when two large pieces of the Earth's crust suddenly slip. The shock waves shake the surface of the earth.
The largest earthquake was in Chile in 1960. It measured 9.6 on the scale.
Earthquakes can cause huge waves in the ocean called tsunamis.
Earthquakes can happen in any weather. Alaska has the most chance of earthquakes in the world.
In Ancient Greece, people believed that Poseidon, god of the sea, caused earthquakes.
Scientists think that animals may sense weak tremors before a quake.
A scale called the Moment Magnitude Scale is used to measure the strength of an earthquake.
This is what may happen depending on the scale.
9.0 and up -
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